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Bolgia 1 -- Panderers and Seducers
Bolgia 10 -- Falsefiers
Bolgia 2 -- Flatterers
Bolgia 3 -- Simoniacs
Bolgia 4 -- Fortunetellers
Bolgia 5 -- Grafters
Bolgia 6 -- Hypocrites
Bolgia 7 -- Thieves
Bolgia 8 -- Evil Counsellors
Bolgia 9 -- Sowers of Discord
Circle I - Limbo - The Virtuous Pagans
Circle II - The Carnal
Circle III -- The Gluttons
Circle IV -- The Hoarders and Wasters
Circle V -- The Wrathful and the Sullen
Circle VI -- The Heretics
Part 1 -- Caina -- Traitors to Kin
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Part 1 -- Caina -- Traitors to Kin
Canto XXXI is the transition into the final circle of hell, and Canto XXXII is the first round of circle nine, Caina: the treacherous to kin.
Dante and Vergil move forward towards the center of the
ninth and final circle of hell
. They approach the central pit, which is a
, and at the center of this pit is Cocytus. In the darkness they see what they believe is a great city, but as they descend closer to the center they realize that the humongous objects are actually the
. They approach the Giants and the Titans and recognize well known figures, such as
. Also among the ones recognized are
. The majority of the Giants and Titans are sinners, and can be seen as being placed in Hell because of these sins; however, it is clear from the placement of Antaeus that they are in Hell mostly for their general behavior. After conversing with some of the Giants, they meet Antaeus. Through
Antaeus lifts up Dante and Virgil, and they are lowered to the last circle of Hell.
- Builder of the
Tower of Babel
. Those in the region of Babylon, which was ruled by Nimrod, planned to build a tower to reach heaven, despite God's objections. To show his displeasure with Babylon, God scattered the citizens of the city, destroying their unified language. Nimrod is often seen as a figure of linguistic confusion.
Ephialtes and Briareus
- The notorious fighters against the Gods. Ephialtes was the son of
and sought to dethrone the Gods with his brother, Otis. They scaled Mount Olympus, but in the process were killed with arrows shot by Apollo and Diana. Briareus is depicted as a monster with one hundred arms, fiftty mouths and chests, filled with burning fire, and fifty shields to defend him from the thunder bolts of Jove.
Tityos and Typhon
- Insulters of
Tityos (also known as Tityus) was the son of Zeus and Elera. He is mostly known for the attempted rape of Leto, mother of Apollo and Diana. As
punishment for his crime
, Tityos was forced to have his liver eaten by vultures every night, only to have it regrow. Typhon was struck down by the lightning bolts of Jove. He was then burried under Mount
in Sicily, and was believed to have caused the many volcanic interuptions in the area.
- figure that makes it clear that the giants are placed in hell for general nature, not for particular sins. Antaeus is the son of Posiedon and Gaia. He is known for his extreme strenght, challenging anyone to pass by him. In Greek mythology, he wrestles
When Dante and Vergil reach the bottom of the
, they approach a
great frozen lake
. This great lake is symbolic for Dante as it represents the final guilt. These sins were denials of love, and therefore God and human warmth. Because of the severity of their sins, they are placed the farthest from God and his light and his warmth. Cocytus contains those those treacherous against those to whom they were
bound by special ties
. The great lake is divided up into four circles each becoming the smaller as one nears the center. There is no specific
for each circle. All that separates them is those who have sinned in each of the circles. The farther one gets to the center, the more the sinner is placed within the ice. The first round has most of their head sticking out, while those in the last round are completely
locked under ice
. The first round of the last circle is Caina: the treacherous to kin. The name of this round comes from
, who betrayed one of his own blood. Among those here include
, Napoleone Degle Alberti, and
. Those in Caina do not have their heads submerged in ice, and are able to move their heads slightly and cry for comfort.
Alessandro and Napoleone Degle Alberti
-Two sons of Count Alberto of Mangona. Alessandro supported the Guelph ideas while Napoleone followed the Ghibellines. This feud became more personal when their father left nine-tenths inheritance to Alessandro, and the remainder to Napoleone. They later killed eachother between 1282-86. The
did not end; Alessandro's son killed Napoleone's son.
- Not much is known about Alberto De Pazzi, nicknamed Camicion, other than that he
one Ubertino, a member of a family line very close to the Pazzi line. His prophecy about Carlin refers to the surrender of a castle holding White guelphs refuge to the Black guelphs by Carlino de Pazzi. Legend states that Carlino will be damned to Antenora.
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