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Introduction


Cirle 9 part 2 is called ANTENORA. This is where Dante has placed THE TREACHEROUS TO COUNTRY. The name comes from Antenor, a citizen of Troy who was believed to have traded his city to the Greeks. Here, the residents of Hell are frozen in the ice up to their necks so that only their heads can be seen. Dante and Virgil encounter several famous traitors and learn of their fates before continuing on.

SINNERS

Bocca Degli Abbati-Florentinian traitor who cut off the hand of the Florentinian standard bearer at the battle of Montaperti. The Florentinians lost the battle without a standard to rally around.

Tesauro dei Beccheria of Pavia-Abbot of Vallombrosa and Papal Legate in Tuscany. He was beheaded by the Florentinian Guelphs for plotting with the banished Ghibellines.

Gianni de' Soldanier- Florentinian Ghibelline who became a leader of the the Guelphs during the riots that happened under the Two Jovial Friars. Dante places him in Antenora to show that there is no difference in betraying a country and betraying a political party. History doesn't say whether Dante was an early Tea Party member, but...

Ganelon- Betrayed Roland, the nephew and rearguard commander of Charlemagne, to the Saracens.

Tebaldello de' Zambrasi- Resident of Faenza who opened the gates of the city to the Bolognese Guelph to take revenge on the Ghibellines who lived in the city.

Count Ugolino-Count of Donoratico and a prominent Guelph. He plotted with the Archbishop Ruggieri degli Ubaldini to defeat Visconti and command the Pisan Guelphs, but he was betrayed by the Archbishop and eventually starved to death in a tower with his sons and grandsons. He's shown feasting on Ruggieri's skull in Hell.

Archbishop Ruggieri degli Ubaldini-Plotted to gain power from Visconti with Count Ugliano, but he betrayed his co-conspirator and left him to die. As such, he is now being eaten by Ugliano in Hell.



Imagery

Antenora continues with Dante's pattern of the punishment fitting the crime. The sinners are frozen in ice to show that they're devoid of feelings. Ugolino was starved to death by Ruggieri, and is now eating his skull for all eternity.

Dante considers the 9th Circle to be the worst punishment imaginable, and completely reversed from Dante's eventual destination of Heaven. It's dark, cold, and devoid of any life. The sinners in Antenora are so frozen that they can't even move their heads away from Dante and Virgil.

Sinners are not bent in the ice, but lying flat on it. It’s so cold there that they are not even allowed to weep because their tears immediately freeze into a sort of "crystal visor" over their eyes.